1. Manufacturing Approaches for 3D Bioelectronics
Transfer printing for large-scale 3D systems
Transfer printing stretchable sensors and actuators from carrying substrates to other curved surfaces yields large-scale bioelectronics in 3D formats. Such 3D systems can form conformal contact with the complex surfaces of organs.
Guided assembly for small-scale 3D devices
Guided assembly transforms lithographically defined 2D patterns into small-scale 3D structures. Such 3D structures provide new modalities in sensing and actuation, and can serve as active scaffolds to interact with cells, tissues and organoids.
Vertically stacking for multilayer 3D arrays
Vertically stacking arrays of electronics allows for high-density integration of multifunctional electronics with multilayer configurations. Such 3D arrays support multimodal spatiotemporal mapping and programmable stimulation.
2. Applications of 3D Bioelectronics
Minimally Invasive Implants
We integrate soft bioelectronics onto expandable/shrinkable 3D surfaces to leverage their flexibility and stretchability. The integrated system enables minimally invasive insertion when the 3D surface switches to its miniaturized state.
We develop non-invasive wearable devices for continuous monitoring, with a specific focus on using 3D structures as the sensing element. The 3D structures possess some unique sensing capabilities that are difficult to achieve with conventional planar layouts.
We embed sensors and actuators on 3D scaffolds to build multifunctional biochips for in vitro study. The combination represents an emerging class of active 3D biointerface that can perform long-term assessment and modulation.